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Krebs Cycle

Names of the ATP production cycle process

Krebs Cycle

Citric Acid Cycle (CAC)

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

 

ETC for production of ATPs

ETC Cycle

Electron Transport Chain

What is CAC and ETC?

Oxidative Phosphorylation Process
– Production of ATPs –

 

Production of ATPs

  • There are three steps in the production of energy, whether from protein, fat, or carbohydrate.
  • The three steps in the metabolism of glucose are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.

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3 Steps in the production of energy from Glucose

Metabolic Pathways

ATP Production

  • The first two steps provide the ETC with “raw materials” which it turns into ATP.
  • Glycolysis’ most important role is to generate CAC activity. This step produces only a little bit of raw material for the ETC.
  • Since little ATP is produced as a result of glycolysis direct contribution to the CAC, the majority of the body’s ATP is ultimately derived through the ETC.

 

Krebs

Main Factors in the Citric Acid Cycle

  • Thiamine (B-1)
  • Riboflavin (B-2)
  • Niacin or Niacinamide (B-3)
  • Pantothenic Acid (B-5)
  • Lipoic or Thioctic Acid
  • Manganese
  • “B”
  • “G”

 

Lesser Factors in the Citric Acid Cycle

  • Biotin
  • Magnesium
  • Iron
  • Sulfur
  • Phosphorus

Nutrients for ATP production

GABA Production

Common source of inactivation of CAC and ETC

  • Heavy Metal Toxicity
  • Immune System Activation

 

Lipoic Acid

  • Lipoic acid is normally synthesized by the body in ample quantities. However, in some of our most difficult patients, we have had striking improvements upon supplementation of this substance.
  • The symptom of decreased motivation, particularly to start a project, or even to get up out of a chair and change television channels, often resolves quickly with lipoic acid supplementation
  • Lipoic acid is known to be inactivated by mercury and arsenic, and it is possible that many of the low energy patterns and other symptoms associated with the controversial mercury toxicity syndrome may be due to the inactivation of lipoic acid and thereby the short circuiting of the CAC.
  • We frequently find a need for lipoic acid in patients who have chronic symptoms and a mouth full of mercury-containing silver amalgams.

 

CAC: Activation of the Immune System

  • Immune system stress and and/or toxicity, cytokines (e.g., IL-2, TNF) induce the production of Nitric oxide (NO). Nitric Oxide (nitrogen oxide, nitrogen monoxide) inhibits the enzyme aconitase in the CAC cycle and decouple the oxidative phosphorylation process.
  • Cytokines increase the activity of the Nitric Oxide (and decrease the CC activity) are going to be present in acute and chronic infections and in allergies and in chemical and food intolerances.
  • CO2 is usually thought of as a waste product in the body, but it is also a very essential molecule. As you know, our respiration is increased, not in response to lowered oxygen tension in the blood, but to elevated CO2, levels.
  • Likewise, CO2, is the essential substance necessary to combine with ammonia to initiate the urea cycle.

 

CO2

  • When the patient performs rebreathing into a paper bag eight or ten times and weak muscles become strong, this is a clue that the CAC is not functioning properly.
  • It can also be an indication for vitamin B-6, because many decarboxylase dependent reactions need vitamin B-6.

Treatment: Breath his own air facilitates?

If Strengten: Test CAC factors

Thiamine (B-1), Riboflavin (B-2), Niacinamide (B-3), Manganese, Pantothenic Acid (B-5), Lipoic Acid (Tioctico), “B” and “G”

If “NO strengthen” with CAC factors:
Test with Biotin
(Not so often: Magnesium or Phosphorus)

If none strengthen:

  •  Test with B-6 y with Piridoxal -5- Phosphate (P-5-P) (active)
  • At this moment you ought to test ETC nutrients as Co – Q10, Iron, and cooper to allow a complete oxidative phosphorylation and the production of ATPs. Nutritional Supplementation plus the treatment of heavy metals, infections, or chemical or food intolerance.

CAC & Cranial Faults

Carbon Dioxide is essential for the production of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Zinc is a must for the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, it combines with water and carbon dioxide to produce carbonic acid, and it is dissociated in Hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions needed for the synthesis of the CFs, and the hydrochloric acid in te stomach and bicarbonate in the pancreas.

Zinc Deficiencies or the carbon Dioxide deficiency decrease the CAC function and may cause reoccurrences of the cranial faults.

Carbonic Anhydrase
CO2 + H2O <–> H2CO3 <–> HCO3- + H+ Zn++

 

Urea Cycle

  • CO2, is the essential substance necessary to combine with ammonia to initiate the urea cycle.
  • When the patient performs rebreathing into a paper bag eight or ten times and weak muscles become strong, this is a clue that the CAC is not functioning properly.
  • It can also be an indication for vitamin B-6.

 

Symptoms from ammonia excess also improve. These include problems with water retention from faulty urea cycle activity, fatigue, and many mental symptoms since ammonia has an effect on the production and breakdown of many neurotransmitters.

 

  • The urea cycle begins when ammonia (NH,) and CO, combine to form carbamic acid.
  • The main source of CO, as previously mentioned, is from CAC activity. Note also that oxaloacetic acid from the CAC becomes aspartic acid and enters the urea cycle on the right.
  • Fumaric acid leaves the urea cycle on the left and returns to the CAC.
  • In other words, the removal of ammonia from the body by the urea cycle is dependent on proper CAC function for the production of both CO2 and oxaloacetic acid.
  • The urea cycle and CAC are interconnected like two gears by these metabolites, a very efficient system of recycling by the body.

 

Olfactive Ammonium Test

 

 

 

GABA Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

 

Is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter. It is necessary for proper central nervous system function.
This includes mental functions as well as neuromuscular control.

To reiterate, tranquilizers and anti-seizure medications affect GABA neuron pathways.

GABA is produced from glutamic acid which is produced from alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG).
AKG is a cousin to citric acid and is produced just a few steps later in the CAC. It has a similar sour taste.

AKG is combined with ammonia and becomes glutamic acid. This requires B6 and niacinamide (NAD). Again, using B-6, glutamic acid undergoes a decarboxylation reaction (wherein a CO, molecule is released) and GABA is formed. Therefore, for GABA to be produced, the body must have adequate supplies of all of the B vitamins and minerals for the CAC as well as B-6.

 

Many patients under stress complain of both exhaustion and anxiety or other mental symptoms.

Some patients shake or tremble when they are at the end of their ropes.

These are low CAC and low GAGA symptoms.

Since a faulty CAC is related to low energy and low GABA.

 

Lipoic Acid and Mercury Toxicity

 

Lipoic acid is normally synthesized by the body in ample quantities. However, in some of our most difficult patients, we have had striking improvements upon supplementation of this substance.

The symptom of decreased motivation, particularly to start a project, or even to get up out of a chair and change television channels, often resolves quickly with lipoic acid supplementation.

Lipoic acid is known to be inactivated by mercury and arsenic, and it is possible that many of the low energy patterns and other symptoms associated with the controversial mercury toxicity syndrome may be due to the inactivation of lipoic acid and thereby the short circuiting of the CAC.

 

Source of the problems are:
Mouth full of mercury-containing silver amalgams from fish consumption

It respond favorably to the addition of lipoic acid to their programs.

Lipoic acid and Thioctic acid are two different names for the same chemical.

The Electron Transport Chain and COENZYME Q10

The ETC receives NADH + H+ and FADH2 from the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and amino acids by the above pathways and converts it via iron and copper containing cytochromes to ATP molecules.

Metabolism of one molecule of glucose through glycolysis produces only two high energy ATP bonds and results in two molecules of pyruvate.

Three more molecules of ATP are produced from the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A.

Twelve more ATPs are formed by the citric acid cycle. The actual formation of ATP takes place in the ETC

The molecule which opens the door to the ETC, the usher which allows entry of the NADH + H` and FADH2 into the ETC, is coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10).

CoQ10 is the name given the chemical substance, ubiquinone.

So without CoQ10 we simply cannot produce energy.

 

Free NADH + H’ and FADHZ are highly oxidizing species and can cause damage to tissues by oxidation of important molecules and cell membranes.

This is why CoQ10 has the reputation as an antioxidant. But it is better thought of as the usher to the third stage of energy production.

In some patients treated with CAC nutrients, the initial response to treatment was excellent, only for the patient to have a recurrence and exacerbation of symptoms two or three days after the first treatment.

On follow up, these patients were found to show a need for CoQ10 supplementing with CoQ10 achieved the previous excellent improvement in the patient’s condition which was maintained this time.

Pyruvate, which cannot be metabolized to enter the CAC, may be converted to lactic acid and result in even greater fatigue. This puts a great stress on the adrenal glands for two reasons:

1) they must constantly be attempting to mobilize glucose in order for the body to produce at least a little energy through glycolysis, and

2) the subsequent buildup of lactic acid is also a strong adrenal stimulant and hence, very stressful to these glands.

Failure of the CAC results in the body’s attempting to produce most of its energy via glycolysis since there is a block beyond glycolysis. The result is a rapid, inefficient, and incomplete burning of glucose and a build up of pyruvate. This creates low energy symptoms and a tendency toward hypoglycemia.

Increased lactic acid is a cause of patients awakening and being unable to return to sleep.
The result is chronic low blood sugar and chronic adrenal gland stress.

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